What does Nattokinase work for

What does Nattokinase work for

You may have heard about the health benefits of Nattokinase and wondered what does Nattokinase work for, the Japanese eat a lot of natto (or baked soya beans) the base constituent of Nattokinase.

According to legend over a 1,000 years ago it was discovered that soybeans when heated would ferment and turn into a strong smelling gooey paste that added to the flavour of rice.

Thus, natto was initially discovered and quickly became a popular staple Japanese diet with purported health benefits in the area of cardiovascular health and longevity.

Nattokinase studies what does Nattokinase work for

Nattokinase studies

Over the years scientists have become aware of natto or Nattkoinase’s health benefits and have begun studies to analyze what does Nattokinase work for, many of the studies point to it’s amazing ability to dissolve unhealthy fibrin, for example in the arteries causing atherosclerosis or in the body causing inflammation and pain.

The studies showed that Nattokinase can dissolve plaque build-up in the arteries meaning a boost to blood flowing to the heart and health benefits for those with cardiovascular disease, research also found another answer to what does Nattokinase work for when studies showed that it could lower blood pressure.

So, we know from the studies on what does Nattokinase work for that it could be highly effective for people with cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, inflammation and pain, that’s a very impressive range of benefits for one simple supplement.

How is Nattokinase produced

In the laboratory a traditional fermented soybean is taken and is boiled, the bacterium Bacillus natto is added, the bacteria digests the soybeans and secretes Nattokinase, all of the clinical studies point to Nattokinase having powerful health benefits especially in the area of cardiovascular disease.

What does Nattokinase work for natto dish

When was Nattokinase discovered

Nattokinase was discovered by a student Doctor, Hiroyuki Sumi way back in 1980, he was studying various conventional drugs at the University of Chicago and their impact on blood clots, by accident he dropped some natto onto a petri dish that contained a thrombus (blood clot)

Within 18 hours and much to his surprise the blood clot completely dissolved, the time frame was considerably less than the drugs he was working on, later he found a way to isolate Nattokinase and has continued to find out more about this marvelous enzyme, including finding out what does Nattokinase work for.

Dr Sumi is not alone in the scientific community in studying and looking at the health benefits of Nattokinase, other scientists have studied its application as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme because it can dissolve blood clots and plaque in the arteries.

Other clinical studies have suggested that Nattokinase can:

  • Reduce bad or LDL cholesterol
  • Increase good or HDL cholesterol
  • Reduce the viscosity of blood improving blood flow
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Dissolve unhealthy fibrin in blood vessels
  • Improves circulation

When people ask what does Nattokinase work for, the answers lie in the studies showing its ability to improve the health of blood vessels, one such study 73 patients that had untreated baseline moderate blood pressure were given either Nattokinase or a placebo.

The trial was spread out over an 8-week period, at the end those taking Nattokinase had a significant drop in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the people given a placebo showed no reduction whatsoever,

What else does Nattokinase work for

Let’s not forget that the health benefits of Nattokinase are not confined to the cardiovascular system, did you know that excessive fiber can cause problems in other parts of the body, for example chronic Rhinosinusitis , asthma and nasal polyps forming.

A group of scientists in Japan knew about Nattokinase and decided to do some further investigation to find out if Na6could help with these conditions, so they studied the effects of Nattokinase on nasal polyps in CRS patients.

To their amazement the nasal polyps were degraded by Nattokinase, not only that it was found that Nattokinase significantly reduced viscosity and nasal discharge.

This information is very important for people that suffer from chronic inflammation in the sinuses, bronchitis, asthma, CRS or other conditions characterized by persistent inflammation in the nasal mucosa and sinuses.

An important feature of sinuses, nasal passageways and healthy airways related to fluidity and elasticity of the respiratory tract and its secretions, should mucus be too viscous and thick it triggers inflammation, this leads to blocked airways, polyps can form, breathing becomes difficult.Blocked airways

What does Nattokinase work for was confirmed by the above studies to not only be beneficial for cardiovascular disease but it can also help people with blocked airways caused by inflammation, reduce the formation of polyps, and support easier breathing.

The studies support the fact that Nattokinase is a strong for not just conditions such as CRS but it could also be used for the likes of COPD, bronchitis and sinusitis.

What is the Nattokinase dosage

Good Health Naturally are the manufacturers of the best-selling Nattokinase brand, they recommend that you take 2,000 fu (100 milligrams) of Nattokinase once or twice daily, their customers are saying that the health benefits of Nattokinase are really worth giving it a try.

Nattokinase testimonial

“Good Health Naturally are an excellent company with very good, caring and helpful staff, the one problem is they want your review very quickly! And of course some health issues take time. I am endeavoring to shift scar tissue in joints that suffered fractures in an accident, in order to regain full mobility. I’ve been taking this and Serrapeptase for several weeks now and there is already an improvement in flexibility but I will continue taking them for a while yet to try to restore the proper functioning of these joints. I can say also that the quality is very good and I have experienced no side effects, as I sometimes do with medicines, even the natural ones! So I have no hesitation in recommending this company and its products

A word of caution

Good Health Naturally do have a word of caution in relation to people that may be taking antiplatlet drugs like Aspirin, Ticlid or Plavix or if you take Coumadin do hot take Nattokinase because it could affect the ability of your blood to clot.What does Nattokinase work for Nattokinase Good health naturally

Nattokinase works for cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease is a great example of what does Nattokinase work for because it is the best enzyme that you can buy to dissolve fibrin, fibrin is a protein that supports blood clotting, that’s fine until the aging process has a detrimental effect on blood viscosity as it thickens and becomes more difficult for your heart to pump around your body.

Natural clot dissolving enzymes that are generated by cells that line the blood vessels can over time become less effective so blood viscosity and thickness becomes an issue as it becomes more prone to clotting making it harder to flow through arteries and blood vessels

An added disadvantage is the fact that this process does increase or cause high blood pressure because of the extra pressure on the heart as it tries to cope with blood circulation through the blood vessels, a knock on effect is a reduction in enough quality minerals, nutrients and oxygen rich blood going to the organs and tissues.

Unfortunately, higher levels of blood viscosity contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke or in extreme cases premature death, Nattokinase is the answer to a healthier cardiovascular system, why not give Nattokinase a try.

How does Nattokinase work

Basically there are two things happening, on the one hand there are blood clots forming, on the other hand a healthy body can cope by breaking down and dissolving these blood clots naturally, as the aging process affects the body’s natural ability to take care of blood clots doctors prescribe blood thinners like Aspirin, however Nattokinase can do a much better job.

Blood proteins like fibrinogen increase the risk of blood clots forming, Nattokinase has been shown in a number of studies to have the ability to decrease levels of fibrinogen in the bloodstream, it also helps normal blood clotting by supporting and activating the body’s own natural enzymes that break up blood clots that have already formed.

Nattokinase has been favorably compared to plasmin a natural clot busting enzyme, another good example of what is Nattokinase for is its ability to enhance the natural production of plasmin as well as urokinase another natural clot busting enzyme.

Nattokinase is a safe, effective and natural way to decrease blood viscosity, thick heavy blood leads to any number of health issues like:

  • High blood pressure
  • Poor circulation
  • Heart disease
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Cold hands and feet
  • A lack of energy
  • Cardiovascular disease

High blood pressure

High blood pressure is a sure sign that your heart is under pressure to pump enough blood, oxygen and nutrients to all parts of your body, it’s quite common and affects nearly 50% of all adults in the USA, high blood pressure is defined as equal to or over 130 mm Hg systolic or equal to or over 80 mm Hg diastolic, during trials Nattokinase has been found to decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

If you are one of the millions of people that suffer the effects of high blood pressure why not give Nattokinase a try, to find out more go to Good Health Naturally here.

Nattokinase for atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a common term used to describe a condition that occurs in the arteries where blood clots occur and stick to plaque build-up along the lining of the arteries.

Atherosclerosis is a very serious health condition and can occur in any of the arteries decreasing blood flow to the heart, kidneys, brain, legs and feet, by supplementing with Nattokinase daily it us possible to slowly reverse the effects of atherosclerosis.

A daily dosage of 2,000 fu of high quality Nattokinase from Good Health Naturally can suppress and reverse the progression of Atherosclerotic plaque in a natural and effective manner, to learn more go to the website here.

What does Nattokinase work for

A study on Nattokinase

A study over a 26-week period involved 82 people that volunteered to take either 6,000 fu or 300 milligrams of Nattokinase each day or 20 milligrams of Simivastatin a cholesterol drug, the results of the study confirmed that the people that took Nattokinase reported a significant reduction in arterial plaque (36%) compared to (11%) in the people taking simivastatin.

On top of that the people taking Nattokinase blood work showed reductions in bad cholesterol (ldl) and triglycerides while their HDL or good cholesterol increased, the study concluded that the health benefits of Nattokinase were associated with its combined effects of its anticoagulant, antioxidant, lipid lowering and anti thrombotic activities.

Nattokinase for optimal blood flow

Healthy blood flow is massively important and beneficial for a healthy body, blood clot formation and plaque build-up means that your body will struggle and become unhealthy, the answer to what does Nattokinase work for in a nutshell it reduces excessive blood clot formation a d plaque build-up.

Conclusion

I hope that you have enjoyed reading what does Nattokinase work for, if you have problems with poor circulation, high blood pressure, heart disease or other issues relating to blockages in arteries or blood vessels then why not give Nattokinase a try.

Nattokinase and Serrapeptase together form a potent partnership in the fight against clogged arteries.


Nattokinase benefits and side effects

Nattokinase syudies

Nattokinase benefits and side effects

In this article we will examine in detail Nattokinase benefits and side effects, the health benefits of nattokinase,what Nattokinase is good for, is it safe to take and what is the correct Nattokinase dosage

Nattokinase or Natto products are widely used throughout the world in capsule or tablet form as nutritional supplements in health promotion areas such as blood clot prevention, blood thinning and improved blood circulation.


nattokinase benefits and side effects
Health benefits Nattokinase

Where does Nattokinase come from?

Nattokinase is an enzyme derived from a staple Japanese food known as Natto, the Japanese make Natto from fermented soya beans it has been eaten there for more than 1,000 years.

Significantly the heart disease risk of a person in Japan is about 1 in 9,000 compared to the Western world where the heart disease risk is one in 9.

Natto is produced during the fermentation process of the soya bean by adding the bacterium Bacillus natto to the soya after it has been boiled. The bacterium Bacillus acts on the soya beans to produce Natto.

We know that similar soy foods contain enzymes but the natto fermentation is the only enzyme to have the specific nattokinase enzyme. Nattokinase is a serine protease within the subtilisin family it is not a kinase even though it is in its name.

Nattokinase promotes strong fibrinolytic activity meaning it could digest fibroids. Nattokinase is manufactured in the main by three factories Daiwa Pharmaceutical, Contek Life Science and the Japanese Nattokinase Association in tandem with the Japan Bio Science Co.

Let’s look at the science behind Nattokinase benefits and side effects.


Studies
Clinical studies image

Nattokinase scientific studies

Scientists have long engaged in a range of scientific studies of Nattokinase, as we speak there are continuous studies being evaluated as to the safety and efficacy of Nattokinase for human consumption.

During one study the results showed that Nattokinase B. natto B-12 had some important effects on fibrinolytic activity meaning it is helpful in dissolving fibroids or plaque and reducing swelling in the body.


Recent research on Nattokinase benefits 

According to recent research not only does Nattokinase demonstrate potent fibrinolytic properties but it also displays anti-atherosclerotic, antihypertensive, anti-platelet neuroprotective effects and lipid lowering properties.

This review deals with the primary pharmacological effects of Nattokinase with a focus on the clinical significance to Coronary Vascular Disease.

It gives an outline on the key nattokinase benefits and side effects to people with cardiovascular disease, the review goes so far as to say that Nattokinase is a promising alternative for the prevention and treatment of Coronary Heart Disease.


pharmacologyPharmacological properties

Furthermore, Nattokinase has numerous pharmacological properties not seen in other drugs or drug candidates, it is natural, it can be taken orally, it has been proven to be safe to take.

It is relatively inexpensive, it is economical to use, overall Nattokinase has massive potential to be developed as a next generation non-drug for the treatment and prevention of CVD.

In this randomized study (September 23 rd. 2016) A group of 50 people were given 300 mg Nattokinase supplement (100 mg nattokinase & 200 mg maltodrexin) daily after a meal.

In the same study 50 people were given a 300mg placebo capsule (300 mg maltodextrin) each day after the main meal.

Conclusions: We verified that nattokinase supplementation was associated with prolonged (C-EPI CT) the same effect as taking aspirin and aPTT in nondiabetic (lowering cholesterol), in people with borderline-to-moderate high cholesterol.


Is Nattokinase safe to take?

In a study of 100 non-demented people the investigators proposed to expose men and women to the Nattokinese supplement or to a placebo over a period of three years.

In a study (in vitro & in vivo) during 2005 by Omura K form from the Department of Legal Medicine, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan it showed that NKCP had a fibrinolytic and antithrombotic effect like heparin.

NKCP comes from food with data on safety demonstrated by preceding animal experts along with previous clinical trials, NKCP was considered safe to be used in a clinical setting. This evidence should help to establish further Nattokinase benefits and side effects.


Nattokinase drug interaction

Nattokinase should not be taken in conjunction with blood thinners.

Nattokinase side effects

Nattokinase is more than likely safe to take in the recommended dose, it does come from a food source and the Japanese people had consumed it for many years.

Don’t forget the Japanese have a 1 in 9000 chance of heart disease compared to the Western world stats of 1 in 9.

Long term use of Nattokinase anywhere up to six months would seem to be safe also, 


Nattokinase warnings & precautions

There isn’t enough research into taking Nattokinase whilst breastfeeding so use it with caution, for safety do not use.

Low blood pressure

Nattokinase has been shown to lower high blood pressure but be aware of what a normal blood pressure reading should be 120 over 80, the National Inistigutes of health state that state blood pressures above a figure of 115/75 mm Hg, every rise of 20/10 mm Hg doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Bleeding disorders: If you are prone to bleeding be aware that Nattokinase is a blood thinner and may make that condition worse. Be cautious about using Nattokinase in this situation it could have a negative side effect.

Nattokinase and Surgery: If you are scheduled for surgery and you take Nattokinase regularly be cautious and stop taking it at a MINIMUM OF 2 WEEKS BEFOREHAND.


What health conditions can Nattokinase be used for?

Nattokinase has been proven to thin the blood helping to break up any formation of blood clots.

This may protect against common health conditions such as heart disease, stroke (blood clots) and heart attack. Some of the research suggests that Nattokinase was effective in reducing blood pressure in patients taking the supplement every day for a period of 8 weeks.

High Cholesterol

In some earlier research people taking a combination of Nattokinase along with red yeast (a compound) during a six-month period showed good results in lowering cholesterol, however we haven’t found any evidence that by taking Nattokinase on its own will reduce cholesterol.


List of uses for Nattokinase

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Pain
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Varicose veins
  • Poor circulation
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Angina
  • High blood pressure
  • PAD (peripheral artery disease)
  • Endometriosis
  • Fibroids in the uterus

Nattokinase benefits side effects Dosage

If taking Nattokinase in capsule form for high blood pressure take the IU value of 140,000 – 250,000 once a day.

For heart disease take the maximum dose of 250,000 IU up to three times a day.

For inflammation, pain or swelling take the 140,000-250,000 IU Nattokinase up to three times a day.

To purchase the best quality Nattokinase please CLICK HERE.

I trust that you have been more informed about Nattokinase benefits side effects by reading my post, to find out more information on Nattokinase please visit the caring people in Good Health Naturally.


References:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372539/

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1177271918785130

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nattokinase

The role of Serrapeptase

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02080520

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16258229?dopt=Abstract


Causes of a heart attack

Causes of a heart attack.

I am well qualified to give advice on the main causes of a heart attack because at age 45 I had a massive heart attack that almost killed me,.

I was a dad to three beautiful daughters and husband who didn’t pay attention to the main causes of a heart attack and almost paid the price with my life.

I work in healthcare I see a lot of people having heart attacks some survive, and some don’t, despite all the advice from doctors and all the medication prescribed heart disease is still the number one killer in the modern world today. I must ask the question, why is that?


Is fitness and diet enough?

Fitness and diet just aren’t enough
Being fit and eating the right foods may not be enough when it comes to preventing a heart attack.

A good example is the actor James Galdonfini who famously portrayed Tony Soprano a mobster who had a heart on the hit TV series the Sopranos.

Tony unfortunstely died from a massive heart attack.

For example just look at some of the fittest people in the world that had a heart attack, Ugo Ehiogu (RIP) was an English footballer who sadly passed away at age 44.

It was speculated that he died from a heart attack but it turned out it was a sudden cardiac arrest, something completely different from the more common reason for heart attacks which is the blood flow to your heart is impeded or blocked putting pressure on the heart.


Cardiac arrest

During a coronary arrest the electrical system of your heart malfunctions or breakdown resulting in your heart beating irregularly and alarmingly fast.

The coronary going to your heart are normally clear and, in most cases, there are few if any symptoms until just before the event such as feeling dizzy, faint or having heart palpitations.

Death happens quickly without emergency treatment because the blood supply isn’t being pumped to the vital organs as it normally is.

In some cases where young people die from sudden cardiac arrest there are other underlying causes such as an enlarged heart (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) in as many as 50% of all sudden cardiac deaths cases the post mortem showed that the heart was found to be completely normal, these had to be classified in the autopsy negative unexplained deaths category.


Athletes-Cardiac arrest

According to this study and allowing for inconsistencies the rate of sudden cardiac arrest in athletes is a leading cause of death, according to estimates there is a 1 in 3,000 chance of a cardiac arrest in athletes.

Similarly the risk amongst Div.1 basketball players has been appraised at ten times more than those in the whole athlete community,(1 in 5190 versus 1 in 53701 athletes per annum)
When a young person dies from a heart attack it may be because of a genetically inherited abnormality that lead to high cholesterol levels.


The heart muscle becomes diseased the muscle tissue changes to fat and scar tissue in place of muscle tissue causing a sudden cardiac arrest, this may happen in children also.

Other examples of sudden death causes are inflammation of the heart known as myocarditis, this is a congenital abnormality of a coronary artery or a heart valve.

In sudden death cases that happen to young people roughly 15% happen because of conditions external to the heart, for example intracranial haemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull) a blood clot causing a sudden blockage (pulmonary embolism)


Does Stress Increase your risk of heart disease?

It is true to say that stress increases your risk of a heart attack, however medical opinion is divided as to how does stress increase the likelihood of a heart attack, for example does stress:

1.Make your blood pressure go higher?

2.Make your cholesterol worse?

3. Make you exercise less?

4.Make your heart beat faster

5.Give you chest pain?

6.Make you smoke?

There are studies linking stress to heart disease, stress can subject your body to damaging levels of stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. Stress can affect the way blood clots which will increase your risk of a heart attack.


Stressed person
Photo by JESHOOTS.COM on Unsplash

Is stress the same for everyone?

The short answer is no, as individuals we react to stress in different ways, some people can handle everyday stress with ease.

Whereas others react in the opposite way by feeling angry, anxious, moody or guilty.

 


Main causes of a heart attack?

We are led to believe that most heart attacks are caused by a blockage in the arterial vessels leading to the heart, (surgeons will usually perform a bypass or insert a stent) this is a very simplistic answer but let’s look a little deeper into this theory.


What causes the blockage in the arterial blood vessels?

It starts with inflammation causing destabilizing of plaque and making it rupture and tear the lining of the blood vessel (the endothelium) this leads to a blood clot which is very dangerous and is one of the leading causes of a heart attack.


Why is the endothelium so important?

The entire circulatory system is lined with vascular endothelial cells all the way from your heart to the tiniest capillaries.

These cells are so important in fluid filtration, hormone trafficking, neutrophil recruitment, blood vessel tone, haemostasis, preventing diffusion of proteins from the blood into the surrounding tissues, and glomeruli of the kidneys.

The endothelial cells play a fundamental role in regulating blood flow, nearly all tissues rely on a continuous supply of blood, that blood supply entirely depends on the endothelial cells, they form the lining of the blood vessel.


What causes damage to the endothelium?

The endothelium becomes damaged by several conditions such as:
1.Coronary heart failure,
2.Diabetes
3.Peripheral vascular disease
4.Chronic kidney failure
5.Chronic heart failure
6.Viral infections
7.High blood pressure
8.High LDL cholesterol


What are free radicals?

Free radicals are caused by smoking, being overweight, sleep issues, acute microbial infections, exposure to air pollutants and metals, and high glucose consumption.

Free radicals can disturb the balance of Nitric Oxide and lead to damage to the endothelium leaving it unduly absorbent letting toxins pass into body tissues.


What is Nitric Oxide?

The endothelium makes Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide is a gas which is short lived, NO does a really important job within the arterial system because it keeps the artery walls smooth and supple allowing blood to flow freely to the vital organs.

Doctor Louis Ignarro was awarded a Nobel prize in medicine when he made the discovery that NO is a signalling molecule produced within the body, it is a vasodilator that assists to control blood flow to every blood vessel in the body.


What is atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a hardening of the arteries, this happens as we age because our capability to produce NO is diminished and plaque, cholesterol and calcium build up in our arteries.

This build-up or hardening can lead to a heart attack or stroke because the blood flow is interrupted, doctors usually prescribe nitro glycerine spray pumps for heart attack or stroke patients.


How do we prevent or cure the cause of a heart attack?

It would seem to be quite logical to me, simply increase the amount of Nitric Oxide in our bodies!

By increasing the amount of NO we help to repair the damage done to the endothelium, remember the endothelium is the single most important part of keeping your arteries flexible and free of arterial plaque.

Nitric oxide is found in certain foods that we eat like citrus, dark chocolate, walnuts, spinach, argula, watermelon, beetroot and others.

The problem is that it would be nearly impossible to consume enough of these foods to make enough Nitric Oxide to repair the endothelium. So, what is the answer?

You need to supplement your diet with natural products that will increase your body’s production of Nitric Oxide gas.


My recommendations. (because they worked for me)

SerraEnzyme contains Serrapeptase.

Serrapeptase has a unique ability to dissolve plaque and lower cholesterol.

SerraEnzyme has been used because of its effectiveness in the natural healing process.

Try SerraEnzyme it WORKS!

 


Blockbuster All clear:

Powerful Support For Normal Arterial & Cardiovascular Health

  • Provides 80,000 IU Of Serrapeptase Per Serving

    Blockbuster AllClear™ is a careful blend of powerful enzymes such as Serrapeptase, Nattokinase, Digestive Enzymes, antioxidants and proanthocyanidins (Grape Seed Extract and Pycnogenoir).

  • Powerful Support For Normal Arterial & Cardiovascular Health

    Serrapeptase is thought to show accelerated healing and effective support for normal cardio, arterial function and anti-inflammatory health. Contains Nattokinase™, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme extracted and highly purified from a traditional Japanese food called Natto.

  • Contains Nattokinase – A Potent Fibrinolytic Enzyme

    The human body produces several types of enzymes for making thrombus, but only one main enzyme from breaking thrombus down and dissolving it – plasmin. Nattokinase has properties that closely resemble plasmin.

  • High-Level Support For Healthy Lungs

    Serrapeptase can provide relief from inflammation and dead scar tissue in the lungs. This can make breathing easier.

  • Safe For Long-Term Maintenance

    Serrapeptase and the Blockbuster AllClear™ formula is safe to take in the long term. Blockbuster AllClear™ is now available in delayed-release capsules.

To purchase Blockbuster AllClear from the Good Health Naturally Superstore Click Here


Proargi 9 plus

Proargi 9 plus is a natural powder based supplement,it is the only L-Arginine supplement mentioned in the Physicians desk manual.

Proargi 9 plus has worked really well for me,if you would like to read my story click here

To purchase Proargi 9 plus on AMAZON Click here

 

 

 

 


 

Acknowledgements:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4969030/​

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831119/​

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11273136​

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26848/​